Direct - InDirect / Reported - Speech
You are going to Learn:
Before we start learning this first we should see the names which are
- Direct / InDirect Speech
- Reporting / Reported Speech
In easy words if i tell you so they all are same. we can say that for one
thing we have 3
names. I am telling you this because when i was learning at
that time my school teacher would say "Naveed tomorrow do the practice of narrations"
but when i used to ask the questions realted to this from my tuition teacher he would teach me the same rules but
takes another name like "Reporting / Reported Speech". I can not express how much confuse i was but after researching about it by my own. i came to know that we have three (3) names. so
its up to you which name you like to take because you have three choices.
If you pay close attention so will find (Direct / In Direct) are two separte words. that's why they both have their own definition
For Example : Bill gates said that , " Your most unhappy customers are your greatest source of learning "
So In This Example Sentence "Your most unhappy customers are your greatest source of learning" is the exact words of Bill gates and because we are telling the exacts words of Bill gates and not changing any single word so this is called Direct / Reporting Speech
For Example : She says to me , "That I Teach English In This School" but if i change the sentence and make it like - She says to me That She Teaches English In This School - In this sentence iam changing the words of her and not saying the same exact words of
her which she said to me so because iam changing some words of here this is called In Direct / Reported Speech and don't worry thinking about how did i make the sentence because after learning the rules you will also be able to make it by yourself.
InDirect / Reported Speech | Rules:
I know you must be thinking why should i learn rules first. well first just see all the rules then i will teach you how to make sentences using these rules because you can't just understand anything without learning it. so it's very important to learn fist so please don't be confused. or if you know it already then just click on it
to skip this step. We have five (5) rules
- Rules of Say
- Rule of That
- Rules of Words
- Rules of Pronoun
- Rules of Pronoun Replacement
1) Rules Of - "Say"
Rules of Say | Explanation:
Say - Will Be Changed To - Say
Say to - Will Be Changed To - Tell
Said - Will Be Changed To - Said
2) Rule of - "That"
Whenever we will have a ( , " ) - Comma and quotation mark
| in our sentence we replace it with the word "That" .
The picture above is showing you exactly what iam saying
3) Rule of Pronoun:
|Subject ||Object |
How to use this i will tell you in the process of making example
4) Rule Of - "Words"
The rule of words is that whenever we will have left side word in our sentence then we will replace it with right side word For Example:
"Today" this word will changed into " That day "
below is the list of all the words
Today -- Will Be Changed To -- That Day
Tomorrow -- Will Be Changed To -- The next day
Last Monday -- Will Be Changed To -- The Previous Monday
This/These -- Will Be Changed To -- That/These
Now -- Will Be Changed To -- Then
5) Pronoun Replacement
This rule is very important and it has three (3) conditions.
Condition No - 1
If in our sentence we have (I , We)
After [, "] - Comma and quotation mark then we will get the Subject As you can see below. after [, "] - Comma and quotation mark we have (I) therefore we are taking the subject Which is "He" and replacing (He With I)
Condition No - 2
If we have You After , " - Comma and quotation mark
then we will get the object (means the last word before [, "] - Comma and quotation mark) but you must be saying ok i got it but this picture is showing totally opposite of what you saying because if we take the last word then i would be (Me not I) right!!! yes you are right but if you see the third rule you will find whenever we will have me then we will replace that me with I . so as i have done i had The word (Me) at the end but i changed it with (I)
Condition No - 3
If we have He,She,it,they After , " - Comma and quotation mark
then we will get nothing. For Instance: He said to me ,"She Likes Apples" - As you can see After [, "] - Comma and quotation mark we have the word (She) so its means we will not anything and then our sentence will become - (He told me that She Likes Apples) so did not get anything. your confusion will be more clear after seeing the proper making process which is down below
- If (I,we) --- Get A Subject
- If (You) --- Get An Object
- If (He,She,it,they) --- No Change
Now We are going to learn how to make Sentence But Before we move forward i want to tell you that
Whenever you will start making sentences first you will have the Sentence of direct / reporting speech available
like this One ->(' She says to me , "I Teach English" ') now your work will be make example using below steps and please don't be confuse because everything will be clear after you see the given steps
She says to me , "I Teach English"
- Step No 1 - First we will take the - She
- Step No 2 - Second we will take the - says to but before we take this we have to see in Rule of Say and in the rules we will see what is the change of says to and the change is tells
- So till now our indirect sentence is She tells
- Step No 3 - Third we will take me so then sentence will become - She tells me
- Step No 4 - Fourth We will replace ( " , ) Comma and quotation mark With That
- Now our sentence is She tells me that
- Step No 5 - Fifth we will see after commna what we have means do we have I , we Or Your because in this case we have
I so will take the subject which is she don't be confuse this is from Rule No 5
- Now we the setence is She tells me that she
- Step No 6 - we will take teach but because we are learning present narrations and as you know in present we have the rule
of third person singular which means we have she so will add es at the end of the verb and in this example verb is
teach so it will become teaches
- Now we have successfully made our sentence Which is (She tells me that she teaches english)
|Normal Example ||Change Into Direct / InDirect |
|1 - She says to me , "I Teach English"||She tells me That she Teaches English |
|2 - They say to us , "We learn Computer"||They tell us that They learn Computer |
|3 - He says to me , "I play football"||He says to me That he plays football |